Yohannes IV, original name Kassa Mercha (born 1831—died March 10, 1889, in Metema, the border of Ethiopia and Sudan), emperor of Ethiopia (1872–89). Like his predecessor, Tewodros II (reigned 1855–68), Yohannes IV was a strong, progressive ruler, but he spent most of his time repelling military threats from Egypt, Italy, and the Mahdists of the Sudan.

Yohannes IV

(Source: Encyclopedia Britannica, Wikipedia)

Superior weaponry allowed Yohannes, a dejazmatch (earl) of Tigray in northern Ethiopia, to fight his way to the Ethiopian throne on January 21, 1872, four years after Tewodros’s death. His main rival was Menilek II, king of Shewa, who did not recognize Yohannes as emperor until 1878/79, after a military defeat. Menilek’s eclipse, however, was only temporary. In 1882 a dynastic marriage was arranged between Menilek’s daughter and Yohannes’ son, and it was agreed that Menilek would be Yohannes’ successor as emperor. Yohannes also recognized Menilek’s control of the south, and their separate spheres of influence were carefully defined. Tensions between the two rose again by 1888, however, when Menilek, fearing that Yohannes’ son might try to follow his father to the throne, made an agreement with the Italians in exchange for arms.

Aside from the recurrent problem of the powerful king of Shewa, Yohannes’ domestic concerns were mainly to reduce the power of the other regional nobles (and thus create a unitary government) and to increase his hold on his subjects through enforced conversion to the Ethiopian Orthodox church. His attempt to use religion as a basis for unity aroused resistance, however, particularly from Muslims who were ordered to build churches, pay tithes, and eventually be baptized.

The expansionist khedive (Ottoman viceroy) Isma’il Pasha of Egypt posed the first external threat to Yohannes’ empire. By the mid-1870s Egypt had encroached on Ethiopia to the east and south, but Ethiopian forces, in what verged on an anti-Muslim crusade, won decisive victories in the mountainous country of the north in 1875 and 1876. Italy, the next aggressor, in 1885 occupied the former Turkish and Egyptian Red Sea port of Mitsiwa (now Massawa, Eritrea) and then began to expand inland toward the province of Tigray, only to be soundly defeated by Yohannes in 1887. In the same year, the Islamic revivalist Mahdist forces, gaining ground in the Sudan, invaded Ethiopia and devastated the old capital, Gonder. In retaliation, and possibly in the hope of getting Sudanese gold and slaves and even of gaining access to the Nile River, Yohannes invaded the Sudan and was killed in the Battle of Metema (March 1889).

Source: Encyclopedia Britannica


 

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3 Responses

  1. Rubbis

    The title by the writer GOORISH WIBNEH should be

    “Obama visit to Ethiopia brings fresh eyes to the country, say very few individuals among Seattle Ethiopians”
    INSTEAD OF

    “Obama visit to Ethiopia brings fresh eyes to the country, say Seattle Ethiopians .”

    Elias Godifay got ties with TPLF mercinaries. I suggest people to refrain from confronting this guy in person after reading what he said. Elias Godifay a Ph.D student in Finance at Northcentral University and an accounting teacher at North Seattle College also has hopes that Obama’s visit will bring “some positive attention to Ethiopia.” .

    I would ask this PhD student what did the president of USA Mr. Obama do to bring posetive attention to the black population in USA where 1 In 3 Black Males Will Go To Prison In Their Lifetime, Report Warns for us Ethiopians (Africans) to expect there will be posetive attention brought by his visit to an African country? But since I know the student got ties to mercinaries I don’t ask him in person to preserve my life.

    Yes, America’s economy is a war economy. Not a “manufacturing” economy. Not an “agricultural” economy. Nor a “service” economy. Not even a “consumer” economy. Approximately 12%-13% of the American population is African-American, but they make up 40% of the almost 2.1 million male inmates in jail or prison (U.S. Department of Justice, 2009).
    According to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), African Americans constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population, and have nearly six times the rate of whites.
    A black male born in 1991 has a 29% chance of spending time in prison at some point in his life.[6]
    One out of nine African American men will be incarcerated between the ages of 20 and 34.
    Black males ages 30 to 34 have the highest incarceration rate of any race/ethnicity.

    http://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-we-love-americas-outrageous
    https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/03/13/11351/the-top-10-most-startling-facts-about-people-of-color-and-criminal-justice-in-the-united-states/

    http://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/rates.html

    • One thing TPLF and USA got in common is they got WAR ECONOMY. Why else are Americans so eager and willing to surrender 54% of their tax dollars to a war machine, which consumes 47% of the world’s total military budgets?
    • Why are there more civilian mercenaries working for no-bid private war contractors than the total number of enlisted military in Iraq (180,000 to 160,000), at an added cost to taxpayers in excess of $200 billion and climbing daily?
    • Why do we shake our collective heads “yes” when our commander-in-chief proudly tells us he is a “war president;” and his party’s presidential candidate chants “bomb, bomb, bomb Iran,” as if “war” is a celebrity hit song?
    • Why do our spineless Democrats let an incompetent, blundering executive branch hide hundreds of billions of war costs in sneaky “supplemental appropriations” that are more crooked than Enron’s off-balance-sheet deals?
    • Why have Washington’s 537 elected leaders turned the governance of the American economy over to 42,000 greedy self-interest lobbyists?
    • And why earlier this year did our “support-our-troops” “war president” resist a new GI Bill because, as he said, his military might quit and go to college rather than re-enlist in his war; now we continue paying the Pentagon’s warriors huge $100,000-plus bonuses to re-up so they can keep expanding “America’s Outrageous War Economy?” Why? Because we secretly love war!

    http://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-we-love-americas-outrageous

    http://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-we-love-americas-outrageous

    Reply

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